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  Referencing: Footnotes and Bibliography  


“Inverted Commas” and Underlining or italics must be used for the appropriate titles of texts cited.

“Inverted Commas”: Titles of short stories, poems, songs, radio and television shows, chapter headings, titles of articles, essays and lectures. Rule: anything within a publication (anthology magazine, newspaper, record album, etc.)
   “The Tax Dodgers” (article); “The Landlady” (short story)
   “The Best” (song); “Neighbours” (TV show)

Underlining (handwritten) or italics (typed): Titles of publications (e.g. novelsl, anthologies newspapers, etc.)
   The Great Gatsby is perhaps F. Scott Fitzgerald’s most renowned novel.
   Oscar Wilde wrote the play, The Importance of Being Earnest.
   Gone with the Wind starred Vivien Leigh and Clark Gable.
   The Bulletin and Women’s Weekly are published monthly.

(ed.) or (eds.) means editor or editors of a book and comes after the author's name (i.e. where an author has compiled a series of articles from various writers into a book).

et al means “and others”. This is used when there are more than two authors or editors to a book. You write only the first two authors' names, followed by "et al".

p. and pp. means page and pages.

Capital Letters are used for the first letter of each main word in titles (and of course, for names).


In order to avoid deceiving the reader (and yourself) into thinking that words, expressions, and ideas gained from someone else are your own, you must, each time that you use someone else's ideas, insert a footnote to show the source of your information. Therefore you should footnote:

• a direct quotation (and enclose it in inverted commas);
• the thoughts, opinions and conclusions of others, even when you express them in your own words through summary and paraphrase.

Procedure to follow:

1. Number the footnotes consecutively (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.)

2. Place the footnote just above the end of the last word of the text which you are acknowledging.

3. Place the footnote number and the details of the source at the bottom of the page. Alternatively, you can include a separate page at the end of your essay or assignment or research paper.

4. The first time you acknowledge someone's work, write the author's name, the title of the source and the page number/s. For example:
            1 Rosemary Jackson, Fantasy: The Literature of Subversion, p.45.

5. Ibid is used if the same work is referred to in the next footnote. For example:
            2 Ibid. p.47

6. If another work (as in footnote 3 below) intervenes between the two references to the same text, write the author's surname, followed by Ibid. For example:
            3 Chris Baldick, In Frankenstein's Shadow, p.8
            4 Jackson, Ibid. p.78.

Here is an example for structuring footnotes:

  1 Clive Bloom, "The House that Jack Built: Jack the Ripper, Legend and the Power of the Unknown", in Clive Bloom and Brian Doherty, et al. Nineteenth Century Suspense: From Poe to Conon Doyle, p.128
2 Ibid. p.136
3 Chris Baldick, In Frankenstein's Shadow, p.8
4 Virginia Wexman, "Horrors of the Body", in William Veeder and Gordon Hirsch (eds.), Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde After One Hundred Years, p.228
5 Bloom, Ibid. p.138
6 Ibid. p.142
7 Rosemary Jackson, Fantasy: The Literature of Subversion, p.114
8 Baldick, Ibid. pp.10-11


1. A bibliography is a complete account of every text that has been consulted in your investigation and, or, research —whether it was used or not in your work. The following rules apply for structuring your bibliography:

Books: Write the author's name, the title of the book, the place published, the publisher, and the year published.
Bram Stoker, Dracula. London: Penguin. (1897) 1979.

Magazines/Journals: Write the author's name, the title of the article, the title of the magazine/journal, the volume number (and number if it has one), the date, and page numbers.
e.g. Nancy Gibbs, “The Dreams of Youth”, in Time. Summer. 1990. pp.8-12
Friedrich Kittler, “Dracula's Legacy”, in Stanford Humanities Review. Vol. 1. No. 2. 1989. pp. 45-60.

Newspapers: Write the author's name, the title of the article, the title of the newspaper, the date, and the page numbers.
Graham Barrett, “Flight into Hell”, in The Age. Saturday 26 August 1992. p.5

Radio or Television Broadcast: Write the title of the broadcast, the programme, channel, and the date.
“Australia's Twilight of the Dreamtime”, National Geographic. ABC 2. August 22 1992.

Films: Write the title of the film, the director's name, the film company, and year the film was produced.
Gone with the Wind. Director: Victor Flemming. Selznick International. 1939.

Websites: Write full details such as the subject title, author and date or year (if provided).
Gradesaver Study Guide, Frankenstein:

2. When writing your bibliography, it must be organised in alphabetical order by the author's surname:

Baldick, Chris. In Frankenstein's Shadow. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1990

Bloom, Clive & Doherty Brian, et. al. Nineteenth Century Suspense: From Poe to Conon Doyle. London: Macmillan. 1988

Carroll, Noelle. The Philosophy of Horror. New York: Routledge. 1990

Kittler, Friedrich. “Dracula's Legacy”, in Stanford Humanities Review. Vol. 1. No. 2. 1989. pp. 45-60

Sullivan, Jane. “Plumbing the Depths of the Psychopath”, in The Age. Wednesday 22 May 1991. p.5

Last up-dated 12 November, 2012
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